Keyhole Surgery (PCNL) (For Large Kidney Stones) is a well-established procedure by which stones in the kidney or the upper ureter are removed by making a small incision in the flank. Generally, an incision, that is 1 cm or less than 1 cm, is made in the flank. A guide wire is passed through this incision into the kidney. Keyhole Surgery is performed under fluoroscopy or x-ray control. This surgery would be recommended as a treatment of choice, if the patient has kidney stones larger than 2 cm.
Laser lithotripsy is performed under general anesthesia, this procedure can be used to remove or break up (fragment) stones located in the ureter or kidney. A special telescopic instrument resembling a long, thin telescope (flexible ureteroscope) is inserted through the urethra and passed through the bladder and up the ureter to the stone.
Advantages of Laser Kidney Stone Treatment
Does not need open surgery.
Treatment of choice in malrotated kidney and horse shoe kidneys having difficulty to access stone.
Can manage stones from any location in ureter or kidney with 99% success rate.
Can treat stones up to 3 cm.
One day of hospital stay only.
Best option in bleeding diathesis.
Best option for hard stones.
Best option for stones in very dependent lower calyx. Best option for ESWL failed cases.
Urinary (or bladder) incontinence is when you are not able to keep urine from leaking out of your urethra, the tube that carries urine out of your body from your bladder. You may leak urine from time to time. Or, you may not be able to hold any urine.
Causes of urinary incontinence include:
Blockage in the urinary system
Brain or nerve problems
Dementia or other mental health problems that make it hard to feel and respond to the urge to urinate
Problems with the urinary system
Nerve and muscle problems
Incontinence may be sudden and go away after a short period of time. Or, it may continue long-term. Causes of sudden or temporary incontinence include:
Bedrest -- for example, when recovering from surgery
Certain medications (such as diuretics, antidepressants, tranquilizers, some cough and cold remedies, and antihistamines for allergies)
Prostate infection or inflammation
Stool impaction from severe constipation, which causes pressure on the bladder